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Authority record

Stafford, Henry, 2nd Duke of Buckingham

  • GB-1859-SJCA-PN102
  • Person
  • 1454-1483

Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, was the nephew of Henry Stafford and Lady Margaret Beaufort, the eldest son of Henry Stafford’s brother, Humphrey Stafford. Following the death of his father in 1458, he became a ward of King Edward IV of England and was appointed Duke of Buckingham in 1460, after the death of his grandfather, the 1st Duke of Buckingham. In 1466, Stafford was married to Catherine Woodville (c.1458-1497), the sister of Edward IV’s queen, Elizabeth Woodville. Together, they had four children.

In the months following Edward IV’s death in 1483, Stafford initially appeared to back the succession of Richard, Duke of Gloucester, to the throne as Richard III of England. But quickly disillusioned with Richard, Stafford switched allegiance to his cousin, Henry Tudor, and mounted a rebellion against Richard in Tudor’s name. The rebellion was unsuccessful and Stafford was executed for treason at Salisbury in November 1483.

Stafford, Henry

  • GB-1859-SJCA-PN101
  • Person
  • c.1425-1471

Henry Stafford was the second son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and the third husband of Lady Margaret Beaufort, his second cousin. They were wedded in January 1458 and enjoyed a long and ostensibly amicable marriage until Stafford’s death in 1471. Like Lady Margaret, Stafford backed the House of Lancaster during the early years of the Wars of the Roses and fought alongside the Lancastrians at the battle of Towton in March 1461. However, following his pardon by Edward IV of England in June 1461, Stafford retained a cautious allegiance to the Yorkist King in subsequent challenges to his sovereignty. Stafford supported Edward at the Battle of Losecoat Field in 1470 and again at Barnet in 1471, where he was wounded during the conflict and later died from his injuries.

Stafford, Edward, 3rd Duke of Buckingham

  • GB-1859-SJCA-PN103
  • Person
  • 1478-1521

Edward Stafford was the eldest son of Lady Margaret Beaufort’s nephew, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, and Catherine Woodville. Lady Margaret assumed the wardship of Edward, together with responsibility for his estates, in August 1486, a year after the accession of King Henry VII of England to the crown. Edward’s father, the 2nd Duke of Buckingham, had been executed several years earlier in 1483 by King Richard III of England on the charge of treason, and his attainder was only formally reversed following Richard’s death in 1485.

It is likely that the young Edward, now the 3rd Duke of Buckingham, was educated in Lady Margaret’s households. In December 1490, he married Eleanor Percy (c.1474-1530), daughter of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland. Buckingham became a conspicuous figure within the royal circle and was frequently in attendance at court. He was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1495 and became a member of King Henry VIII’s Privy Council in 1509. In 1521, he was arrested and charged with plotting to overthrow the king. Found guilty at trial, Buckingham was beheaded on 17 May 1521 and his honours and estates were subsequently forfeited.

Spivey, A J

  • GB-1859-SJCA-PN210
  • Person

Southwell, Sir Robert

  • GB-1859-SJCA-PN126
  • Person
  • d.1514

Sir Robert Southwell was a lawyer and a royal administrator during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century. A descendant of a wealthy Norfolk family, Southwell was a member of Lincoln’s Inn and rose to prominence during the 1490s, when he worked in the crown lands administration on various appointments, receiverships and special commissions. By 1503, he occupied the role of general surveyor of all the royal lands. From 1504, he served as chief butler of England and in 1510, he was appointed chief auditor of the exchequer. He died in 1514.

Somerset [formerly Beaufort], 1st Earl of Worcester

  • GB-1859-SJCA-PN180
  • Person
  • c1460-1526

Illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, and Joan Hill. He spent his childhood in exile and came to England with Henry Tudor in 1485, who knighted him on 7 August 1485. He stopped using the surname Beaufort and took that of Somerset instead. He married Henry VII's ward, Elizabeth Herbert, the sole heir of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, in 1492. Through his wife he acquired substantial lands in Wales. He administered the marcher lordship of Glamorgan for the Crown and was awarded more lands and titles, making him the most powerful man in south Wales. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1496. In 1501 he was made Vice-Chamberlain of Henry VII's household. In 1504 he was created Baron Herbert. In 1509 Henry VIII made him Lord Chamberlain, head of the royal household. Both monarchs employed him on international military and diplomatic missions. He was created Earl of Worcester in 1514 and in the period 1518-1520 conducted negotiations with France, culminating in the Field of the Cloth of Gold, for the organisation of which he was mostly responsible. He died on 25 April 1526 and was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor.

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